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EUROPA'S

FAIRY TALES



"_Do tell us a fairy tale, ganpa._"

"_Well, will you be good and quiet if I do?_"

"_Of course we will; we are always good when you are telling
us fairy tales._"

"_Well, here goes.--Once upon a time, though it wasn't in my
time, and it wasn't in your time, and it wasn't in anybody
else's time, there was a----_"

"_But that would be no time at all._"

"_That's fairy tale time._"

* * * * *




[Illustration: _The Marshal tells how he killed the Dragon_]


EUROPA'S

FAIRY BOOK



RESTORED AND RETOLD BY

JOSEPH JACOBS



DONE INTO PICTURES BY

JOHN D. BATTEN



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK AND LONDON

The Knickerbocker Press




COPYRIGHT, 1916

BY

JOSEPH JACOBS

* * * * *




To

PEGGY, AND MADGE, AND PEARL, AND MAGGIE,
AND MARGUERITE, AND PEGGOTTY, AND MEG,
AND MARJORY, AND DAISY, AND PEGG, AND

MARGARET HAYS

(How many granddaughters does that make?)


MY DEAR LITTLE PEGGY:--

Many, many, many years ago I wrote a book for your Mummey--when she
was my little May--telling the fairy tales which the little boys and
girls of England used to hear from their mummeys, who had heard them
from their mummeys years and years and years before. My friend Mr.
Batten made such pretty pictures for it--but of course you know the
book--it has "Tom, Tit, Tot" and "The little old woman that went to
market," and all those tales you like. Now I have been making a
fairy-tale book for your own self, and here it is. This time I have
told, again the fairy tales that all the mummeys of Europe have been
telling their little Peggys, Oh for ever so many years! They must have
liked them because they have spread from Germany to Russia, from Italy
to France, from Holland to Scotland, and from England to Norway, and
from every country in Europe that you will read about in your
geography to every other one. Mr. Batten, who made the pictures for
your mummey's book, has made some more for yours--isn't it good of
him when he has never seen you?

Though this book is your very, very own, you will not mind if other
little girls and boys also get copies of it from their mummeys and
papas and ganmas and ganpas, for when you meet some of them you will,
all of you, have a number of common friends like "The Cinder-Maid," or
"The Earl of Cattenborough," or "The Master-Maid," and you can talk to
one another about them so that you are old friends at once. Oh, won't
that be nice? And when one of these days you go over the Great Sea, in
whatever land you go, you will find girls and boys, as well as
grown-ups, who will know all of these tales, even if they have
different names. Won't that be nice too?

And when you tell your new friends here or abroad of these stories
that you and they will know so well, do not forget to tell them that
you have a book, all of your very own, which was made up specially for
you of these old, old stories by your old, old

GANPA.

P.S.--Do you hear me calling as I always do, "Peggy, Peggy"? Then you
must answer as usual, "Ganpa, Ganpa."

* * * * *




PREFACE


Ever since--almost exactly a hundred years ago--the Grimms produced
their Fairy Tale Book, folk-lorists have been engaged in making
similar collections for all the other countries of Europe, outside
Germany, till there is scarcely a nook or a corner in the whole
continent that has not been ransacked for these products of the
popular fancy. The Grimms themselves and most of their followers have
pointed out the similarity or, one might even say, the identity of
plot and incident of many of these tales throughout the European
Folk-Lore field. Von Hahn, when collecting the Greek and Albanian
Fairy Tales in 1864, brought together these common "formulŠ" of the
European Folk-Tale. These were supplemented by Mr. S. Baring-Gould in
1868, and I myself in 1892 contributed an even fuller list to the
_Hand Book of Folk-Lore_. Most, if not all of these formulŠ, have been
found in all the countries of Europe where folk-tales have been
collected. In 1893 Miss M. Roalfe Cox brought together, in a volume of
the Folk-Lore Society, no less than 345 variants of "Cinderella" and
kindred stories showing how widespread this particular formula was
throughout Europe and how substantially identical the various
incidents as reproduced in each particular country.

It has occurred to me that it would be of great interest and, for
folk-lore purposes, of no little importance, to bring together these
common Folk-Tales of Europe, retold in such a way as to bring out the
original form from which all the variants were derived. I am, of
course, aware of the difficulty and hazardous nature of such a
proceeding; yet it is fundamentally the same as that by which scholars
are accustomed to restore the _Ur_-text from the variants of different
families of MSS. and still more similar to the process by which Higher
Critics attempt to restore the original narratives of Holy Writ. Every
one who has had to tell fairy tales to children will appreciate the
conservative tendencies of the child mind; every time you vary an
incident the children will cry out, "That was not the way you told us
before." The Folk-Tale collections can therefore be assumed to retain
the original readings with as much fidelity as most MSS. That there
was such an original rendering eminating from a single folk artist no
serious student of Miss Cox's volume can well doubt. When one finds
practically the same "tags" of verse in such different dialects as
Danish and Romaic, German and Italian, one cannot imagine that these
sprang up independently in Denmark, Greece, Germany, and Florence. The
same phenomenon is shown in another field of Folk-Lore where, as the
late Mr. Newell showed, the same rhymes are used to brighten up the
same children's games in Barcelona and in Boston; one cannot imagine
them springing up independently in both places. So, too, when the same
incidents of a fairy tale follow in the same artistic concatenation in
Scotland, and in Sicily, in Brittany, and in Albania, one cannot but
assume that the original form of the story was hit upon by one
definite literary artist among the folk. What I have attempted to do
in this book is to restore the original form, which by a sort of
international selection has spread throughout all the European folks.

But while I have attempted thus to restore the original substance of
the European Folk-Tales, I have ever had in mind that the particular
form in which they are to appear is to attract English-speaking
children. I have, therefore, utilized the experience I had some years
ago in collecting and retelling the Fairy Tales of the English
Folk-Lore field (_English Fairy Tales_, _More English Fairy Tales_),
in order to tell these new tales in the way which English-speaking
children have abundantly shown they enjoy. In other words, while the
plot and incidents are "common form" throughout Europe, the manner in
which I have told the stories is, so far as I have been able to
imitate it, that of the English story-teller.

I have indeed been conscious throughout of my audience of little ones
and of the reverence due to them. Whenever an original incident, so
far as I could penetrate to it, seemed to me too crudely primitive for
the children of the present day, I have had no scruples in modifying
or mollifying it, drawing attention to such Bowdlerization in the
somewhat elaborate notes at the end of the volume, which I trust will
be found of interest and of use to the serious student of the
Folk-Tale.

It must, of course, be understood that the tales I now give are only
those found practically identical in all European countries. Besides
these there are others which are peculiar to each of the countries or
only found in areas covered by cognate languages like the Celtic or
the Scandinavian. Of these I have already covered the English and the
Celtic fields, and may, one of these days, extend my collections to
the French and Scandinavian or the Slavonic fields. Meanwhile it may
be assumed that the stories that have pleased all European children
for so long a time are, by a sort of international selection, best
fitted to survive, and that the Fairy Tales that follow are the
choicest gems in the Fairy Tale field. I can only express the hope
that I have succeeded in placing them in an appropriate setting.

It remains only to thank those of my colleagues and friends who have
aided in various ways in the preparation of this volume, though of
course their co-operation does not, in the slightest, imply
responsibility for or approval of the method of treatment I have
applied to the old, old stories. Miss Roalfe Cox was good enough to
look over my reconstruction of "Cinderella" and suggest alterations in
it. Prof. Crane gave me permission to utilize the version of the
"Dancing Water," in his Italian Popular Tales. Sir James G. Frazer
looked through my restoration of the "Language of Animals," which was
suggested by him many years ago; and Mr. E. S. Hartland criticized the
Swan-Maiden story. I have also to thank my old friend and publisher,
Dr. G. H. Putnam, for the personal interest he has taken in the
progress of the book.

J. J.

YONKERS, N. Y.

July, 1915.

* * * * *




CONTENTS


PAGE

PREFACE v

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii

I.--CINDER-MAID 1

II.--ALL CHANGE 13

III.--THE KING OF THE FISHES 19

IV.--SCISSORS 31

V.--BEAUTY AND THE BEAST 34

VI.--REYNARD AND BRUIN 42

VII.--THE DANCING WATER, SINGING APPLE, AND SPEAKING BIRD 51

VIII.--THE LANGUAGE OF ANIMALS 66

IX.--THE THREE SOLDIERS 72

X.--A DOZEN AT A BLOW 81

XI.--THE EARL OF CATTENBOROUGH 90

XII.--THE SWAN MAIDENS 98

XIII.--ANDROCLES AND THE LION 107

XIV.--DAY DREAMING 110

XV.--KEEP COOL 115

XVI.--THE MASTER THIEF 121

XVII.--THE UNSEEN BRIDEGROOM 129

XVIII.--THE MASTER-MAID 142

XIX.--A VISITOR FROM PARADISE 159

XX.--INSIDE AGAIN 165

XXI.--JOHN THE TRUE 170

XXII.--JOHNNIE AND GRIZZLE 180

XXIII.--THE CLEVER LASS 188

XXIV.--THUMBKIN 194

XXV.--SNOWWHITE 201

NOTES 215

LIST OF INCIDENTS 263

* * * * *




ILLUSTRATIONS


PAGE

THE MARSHAL TELLS HOW HE KILLED THE DRAGON
_Frontispiece_

THE HERALD ANNOUNCES THE COURT BALL 1

THE SOLDIER LAYS A HONEY TRAP 6

THE STEP-SISTER CUTS OFF HER TOE 9

"WILL YOU MIND MY PEA?" 13

THE SEVEN-HEADED DRAGON 19

THE MARSHAL TELLS HOW HE KILLED THE DRAGON 25

SCISSORS 31

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST 39

REYNARD 42

BRUIN GETS A BEATING 45

BRUIN CARRIES REYNARD 46

THE FOSTER MOTHER 55

THE KING BEGS PARDON 64

THE GIRL AND THE FROG 66

THE POPE IS ELECTED 70

THE MAGIC PURSE 73

THE PRINCESS FINDS HORNS ON HER HEAD 79

THE UNICORN 81

THE EARL OF CATTENBOROUGH WILL BE PLEASED TO PARTAKE OF A POTATO 90

THE CAT AND THE OGRE 96

"HAD YOU NOT BETTER THROW ME INTO THE MILLSTREAM?" 97

THE CHILD FINDS THE FEATHER DRESS 98

THE DOLPHIN WHO CAME LATE 102

EAST O' THE SUN AND WEST O' THE MOON 105

ANDROCLES AND THE LION 107

DAY-DREAMING 110

THE PIG'S TAIL 120

THE DUMMY 121

ANIMA GOES DOWN THE HOLE 129

THE LAMP 133

THE DOG 139

THE CASKET 140

THE MASTER-MAID WITH THE GLASS AXE 142

THE PRINCE WANTS HIS LUNCH 145

THE GIANT TRIES TO DRINK THE STREAM 154

THE VISITOR 159

UP THE TREE 163

THE SNAKE 165

THE THREE RAVENS 170

THE WOUNDED DRAGON 179

THE WITCH 180

THE DUCK 187

"MIRROR, MIRROR, ON THE WALL, WHO IS THE FAIREST OF US ALL?" 201

SNOWWHITE AND THE THREE DWARFS 211

* * * * *




[Illustration: The Herald Announces the Court Ball]

THE CINDER-MAID


Once upon a time, though it was not in my time or in your time, or in
anybody else's time, there was a great King who had an only son, the
Prince and Heir who was about to come of age.



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