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Produced by Robert J. Hall.




[Illustration: Arms granted to SEBASTIAN DEL CANO, Captain of the
_Victoria_, the first vessel that circumnavigated the Globe

[_For a description, see pp._ 129-30]]




The Story of Geographical Discovery

How the World Became Known


By Joseph Jacobs

With Twenty-four Maps, &c.




PREFACE

In attempting to get what is little less than a history of the world,
from a special point of view, into a couple of hundred duodecimo
pages, I have had to make three bites at my very big cherry. In the
Appendix I have given in chronological order, and for the first
time on such a scale in English, the chief voyages and explorations
by which our knowledge of the world has been increased, and the
chief works in which that knowledge has been recorded. In the body
of the work I have then attempted to connect together these facts
in their more general aspects. In particular I have grouped the
great voyages of 1492-1521 round the search for the Spice Islands
as a central motive. It is possible that in tracing the Portuguese
and Spanish discoveries to the need of titillating the parched
palates of the mediŠvals, who lived on salt meat during winter and
salt fish during Lent, I may have unduly simplified the problem.
But there can be no doubt of the paramount importance attached
to the spices of the East in the earlier stages. The search for
the El Dorado came afterwards, and is still urging men north to
the Yukon, south to the Cape, and in a south-easterly direction
to "Westralia."

Besides the general treatment in the text and the special details
in the Appendix, I have also attempted to tell the story once more
in a series of maps showing the gradual increase of men's knowledge
of the globe. It would have been impossible to have included all
these in a book of this size and price but for the complaisance
of several publishing firms, who have given permission for the
reproduction on a reduced scale of maps that have already been
prepared for special purposes. I have specially to thank Messrs.
Macmillan for the two dealing with the Portuguese discoveries,
and derived from Mr. Payne's excellent little work on European
Colonies; Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., of Boston, for several
illustrating the discovery of America, from Mr. J. Fiske's "School
History of the United States;" and Messrs. Phillips for the arms
of Del Cano, so clearly displaying the "spicy" motive of the first
circumnavigation of the globe.

I have besides to thank the officials of the Royal Geographical
Society, especially Mr. Scott Keltie and Dr. H. R. Mill, for the
readiness with which they have placed the magnificent resources
of the library and map-room of that national institution at my
disposal, and the kindness with which they have answered my queries
and indicated new sources of information.

J. J.




CONTENTS

CHAP.
PREFACE
LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
INTRODUCTION
I. THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO THE ANCIENTS
II. THE SPREAD OF CONQUEST IN THE ANCIENT WORLD
III. GEOGRAPHY IN THE DARK AGES
IV. MEDIĂVAL TRAVELS--MARCO POLO, IBN BATUTA
V. ROADS AND COMMERCE
VI. TO THE INDIES EASTWARD--PORTUGUESE ROUTE--PRINCE HENRY AND VASCO
DA GAMA
VII. TO THE INDIES WESTWARD--SPANISH ROUTE--COLUMBUS AND MAGELLAN
VIII. TO THE INDIES NORTHWARD--ENGLISH, FRENCH, DUTCH, AND RUSSIAN ROUTES
IX. PARTITION OF AMERICA
X. AUSTRALIA AND THE SOUTH SEAS--TASMAN AND COOK
XI. EXPLORATION AND PARTITION OF AFRICA--PARK, LIVINGSTON, AND STANLEY
XII. THE POLES--FRANKLIN, ROSS, NORDENSKIOLD, AND NANSEN
ANNALS OF DISCOVERY




LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

COAT-OF-ARMS OF DEL CANO (from Guillemard, _Magellan_. By kind
permission of Messrs. Phillips).--It illustrates the importance
attributed to the Spice Islands as the main object of Magellan's
voyage. For the blazon, see pp. 129-30.

THE EARLIEST MAP OF THE WORLD (from the Rev. C. J. Ball's _Bible
Illustrations_, 1898).--This is probably of the eighth century
B.C., and indicates the Babylonian view of the world surrounded by
the ocean, which is indicated by the parallel circles, and traversed
by the Euphrates, which is seen meandering through the middle, with
Babylon, the great city, crossing it at the top. Beyond the ocean
are seven successive projections of land, possibly indicating the
Babylonian knowledge of surrounding countries beyond the Euxine
and the Red Sea.

THE WORLD ACCORDING TO PTOLEMY.--It will be observed that the Greek
geographer regarded the Indian Ocean as a landlocked body of water,
while he appears to have some knowledge of the so ces of the Nile.
The general tendency of the map is to extend Asia very much to
the east, which led to the miscalculation encouraging Columbus to
discover America.

THE ROMAN ROADS OF EUROPE (drawn specially for this work).--These
give roughly the limits within which the inland geographical knowledge
of the ancients reach some degrees of accuracy.

GEOGRAPHICAL MONSTERS (from an early edition of Mandeville's
_Travels_).--Most of the mediŠval maps were dotted over with similar
monstrosities.

THE HEREFORD MAP.--This, one of the best known of mediŠval maps,
was drawn by Richard of Aldingham about 1307. Like most of these
maps, it has the East with the terrestrial paradise at the top,
and Jerusalem is represented as the centre.

PEUTINGER TABLE, WESTERN PART.--This is the only Roman map extant;
it gives lines of roads from the eastern shores of Britain to the
Adriatic Sea. It is really a kind of bird's-eye view taken from
the African coast. The Mediterranean runs as a thin strip through
the lower part of the map. The lower section joins on to the upper.

THE WORLD ACCORDING TO IBN HAUKAL (from Lelewel, _GÚographie du
mon age_).--This map, like most of the Arabian maps, has the south
at the top. It is practically only a diagram, and is thus similar
to the Hereford Map in general form.--Misr=Egypt, Fars=Persia,
Andalus=Spain.

COAST-LINE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN (from the _Portulano_ of Dulcert,
1339, given in Nordenskiold's _Facsimile Atlas_).--To illustrate
the accuracy with which mariners' charts gave the coast-lines as
contrasted with the merely symbolical representation of other mediŠval
maps.

FRA MAURO MAP, 1457 (from Lelewel, _loc. Cit._).--Here, as usual,
the south is placed at the top of the map. Besides the ordinary
mediŠval conceptions, Fra Mauro included the Portuguese discoveries
along the coast of Africa up to his time, 1457.

PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES IN AFRICA (from E. J. Payne, _European Colonies_,
1877).--Giving the successive points reached by the Portuguese
navigators during the fifteenth century.

PORTUGUESE INDIES (from Payne, _loc. Cit._).--All the ports mentioned
in ordinary type were held by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century.

THE TOSCANELLI MAP (from Kretschmer, _Entdeckung Amerikas_, 1892).--This
is a reconstruction of the map which Columbus got from the Italian
astronomer and cartographer Toscanelli and used to guide him in
his voyage across the Atlantic. Its general resemblance to the
Behaim Globe will be remarked.

THE BEHAIM GLOBE.--This gives the information about the world possessed
in 1492, just as Columbus was starting, and is mainly based upon the
map of Toscanelli, which served as his guide. It will be observed
that there is no other continent between Spain and Zipangu or Japan,
while the fabled islands of St. Brandan and Antilia are represented
bridging the expanse between the Azores and Japan.

AMERIGO VESPUCCI (from Fiske's _School History of the United States_,
by kind permission of Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co.)

FERDINAND MAGELLAN (from Fiske's _School History of the United
States_, by kind permission of Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co.)

MAP OF THE WORLD, from the Ptolemy Edition of 1548 (after Kretschmer's
_Entdeckungsgeschichte Amerikas_).--It will be observed that Mexico
is supposed to be joined on to Asia, and that the North Pacific
was not even known to exist.

RUSSIAN ASIA (after the Atlas published by the Russian Academy of
Sciences in 1737, by kind permission of Messrs. Hachette). Japan
is represented as a peninsula.

AUSTRALIA AS KNOWN IN 1745 (from D'Anville's _Atlas_, by kind permission
of Messrs. Hachette).--It will be seen that the Northern and Western
coasts were even by this time tolerably well mapped out, leaving
only the eastern coast to be explored by Cook.

AUSTRALIA, showing routes of explorations (prepared specially for
the present volume). The names of the chief explorers are given
at the top of the map.

AFRICA AS KNOWN IN 1676 (from Dapper's _Atlas_).--This includes
a knowledge of most of the African river sand lakes due to the
explorations of the Portuguese.

AFRICA (made specially for this volume, to show chief explorations
and partition).--The names of the explorers are given at the foot
of the map itself.

NORTH POLAR REGIONS, WESTERN HALF (prepared specially for the present
volume from the _Citizen's Atlas_, by kind permission of Messrs.
Bartholomew).--This gives the results of the discoveries due to
Franklin expeditions and most of the searchers after the North-West
Passage.

NORTH POLAR REGIONS, EASTERN HALF.--This gives the Siberian coast
investigated by the Russians and Nordenskiold, as well as Nansen's
_Farthest North_.

CLIMBING THE NORTH POLE (prepared specially for this volume). Giving
in graphic form the names of the chief Arctic travellers and the
latitude N. reached from John Davis (1587) to Nansen (1895).




THE STORY OF

GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY




INTRODUCTION

How was the world discovered? That is to say, how did a certain
set of men who lived round the Mediterranean Sea, and had acquired
the art of recording what each generation had learned, become
successively aware of the other parts of the globe? Every part of
the earth, so far as we know, has been inhabited by man during the
five or six thousand years in which Europeans have been storing up
their knowledge, and all that time the inhabitants of each part, of
course, were acquainted with that particular part: the Kamtschatkans
knew Kamtschatka, the Greenlanders, Greenland; the various tribes of
North American Indians knew, at any rate, that part of America over
which they wandered, long before Columbus, as we say, "discovered"
it.

Very often these savages not only know their own country, but can
express their knowledge in maps of very remarkable accuracy.



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